Solid wastes are those substances, products or by-products in solid or semi-solid state that are available or required by their generator, by virtue of what is established in national regulations or of the risks they cause to health and the environment. This definition includes waste generated by natural events.
Nanobubbles are gas filled cavities in a solution (water solution) with a diameter less than 100 nm. Some define nanobubbles as bubbles in a solution with a diameter smaller than 1 µm and larger than 1 nm. Each bubble is surrounded by an interface with different properties than the bulk solution. We will refer to bubbles with a diameter less than 1 micron as “ultra-fine bubbles (UFB)” which include the family of nanobubbles as defined above.
Bubble Stability & Longevity Based on the Young–Laplace equation, bubbles grow or shrink by diffusion based on whether the surrounding solution is over or under-saturated with gas relative to the cavities pressure. Since the solubility of gas is proportional to the gas pressure and this pressure is exerted by the surface tension in inverse proportion to the diameter of the bubble, the normal tendency is for bubbles to shrink in size and dissolve in a few microseconds. However, nanobubbles are observed in water for days.
The stability of nanobubbles is not well understood but is thought to be a balance of the van der Waal’s force of attraction and the electric double-layer force of repulsion between neighboring nanobubbles, with additional contributions from the virtual disappearance of buoyant force, bridging nanobubbles, entropic restriction, and fluid structuring.
The longevity factor of nanobubbles in water increases residence time of oxygen in the water and in doing so, directly impacts any type of aerobic or anaerobic interaction with viruses and bacteria. Nanobubbles can be used in treatments of: Water treatments, Soil treatments and Gases treatments.
A nanoparticle (or nanopowder or nanocluster or nanocrystal) is a microscopic particle with at least one dimension less than 100 nm. Nanoparticles exhibit a number of special properties relative to bulk material. For example, the bending of bulk copper (wire, ribbon, etc.) occurs with movement of copper atoms/clusters at about the 50 nm scale. Copper nanoparticles smaller than 50 nm are considered super hard materials that do not exhibit the same malleability and ductility as bulk copper. Various nanoparticles are commonly used in different products.
- Home appliance
- Renewable energy
- Sport and fitness
Graphene is the name for a honeycomb sheet of carbon atoms. It is the building block for other graphitic materials (since a typical carbon atom has a diameter of about 0.33 nanometers, there are about 3 million layers of graphene in 1 mm of graphite). Harder than diamond yet more elastic than rubber; tougher than steel yet lighter than aluminium. Graphene is the strongest known material.
Key graphene properties:
- Thermal conductivity
- Electrical resistitivty
- High Surface área
- Toughness and stretchability
- Electron mobility
- Atomic thickness
Key application áreas for graphene
- Biomedical technologies
- Energy harvesting&storage
- Composites and coatings